International Archives of BioMedical and Clinical Research https://www.iabcr.org/index.php/iabcr <p style="text-align: justify;">International Archives of Biomedical and Clinical Research (IABCR) is an open access, international, peer-reviewed, quarterly multidisciplinary medical research journal that focuses on communicating high quality research articles, reviews, Short communications, case reports, Letter to Editor, Drug News and updates in the field of Medical, Dental and other allied health and BioMedical Sciences. The Journal publishes 4-four issues in a year.</p> <h3>Connecting Researchers Globally</h3> <p style="text-align: justify;">IABCR offer Researchers, Academicians a better option when it comes to Open Access Journal publishing. Our platform vies to become the standard for all open access publications, irrespective of subjects or branches and aims to bring together researchers from all over the world and under a single global organization to form a community that actively creates new data and shares it with everyone with the utmost ease and simplicity.</p> <h3>Ethical guidelines for journal publication</h3> <p style="text-align: justify;">The Editor-in-Chief/Editor of International Archives of BioMedical and Clinical Research (IABCR) is responsible for determining which of the research papers/articles submitted to the journal should be printed. The publication decision is based on the recommendation of the journal's reviewers. The Editor-in-Chief /Editor may be maneuvered by the policies of the journal's editorial board and constrained by such legal requirements as shall then be in force regarding libel, copyright infringement and plagiarism. The Editor-in-Chief/Editor may consult with other editors or reviewers in getting to this determination.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> en-US editor.iabcr@gmail.com (Dr. Farhan Ahmad Khan, MD) waseem@marwahinfotech.com (Mohd Waseem) Fri, 31 Dec 2021 20:12:14 +0000 OJS 3.1.2.1 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Neurological Manifestations of Covid-19: A Comprehensive Review https://www.iabcr.org/index.php/iabcr/article/view/766 <p>The COVID-19 pandemic causing virus, SARS-CoV-2 emerged in the year 2019 from China. Since then, it has inflicted millions of people globally. Common presentations include cough, fever, body ache, fatigue, and shortness of breath, whereas few people might not develop any symptom. The main target of this virus is respiratory system; precisely it attacks the ACE-2 receptors of alveolar cells of lungs. ACE-2 receptors are also found in heart, gastrointestinal tract, kidneys, testis, and brain; hence involvement of these organs is also seen with this disease. An emerging discovery of invasion of nervous system by this virus has impelled researchers to investigate and understand the neurological mechanisms and features of COVID-19. The virus can affect Central as well as Peripheral Nervous System. Peripheral nervous system implications are not critical and include hypersomnia, ageusia, Guillain barre syndrome, paresthesia, skeletal muscle injury and cranial nerve involvement, whereas in central nervous system, dizziness, headache, acute cerebrovascular disease, altered level of consciousness, transverse myelitis, acute hemorrhagic necrotizing encephalopathy, encephalopathy, encephalitis, epilepsy and ataxia can develop. Neurological manifestations are particularly seen with severely ill COVID patients.</p> <p>In this article, we present a comprehensive review of prevalence of various CNS and PNS symptoms in COVID-19, risk factors, investigations, management, and prognosis related to these. This will aid the physicians and neurologists in better understanding the course of this illness and the current statistics of neurological presentations, crucial for handling the disease.</p> Naseem Ahmed, Lahiba Rasheed Khan, Rabia Rasool, Amna Imran, Maria Noor Copyright (c) 2021 Naseem Ahmed, Lahiba Rasheed Khan, Rabia Rasool, Amna Imran, Maria Noor https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.iabcr.org/index.php/iabcr/article/view/766 Fri, 31 Dec 2021 19:52:49 +0000 A Comparative Study of Offline Versus Online Teaching of Anatomy Conducted on First Year MBBS Students of JNMC, AMU, Aligarh https://www.iabcr.org/index.php/iabcr/article/view/763 <p><strong>Background</strong><strong>: </strong>Online classes and the internet based learning have become tools to continue learning process during COVID-19 times. This study explores the effectiveness of online teaching on the performance of students in professional exams and examines the potential challenges and drawbacks of online teaching. The present study also compares whether online learning is as effective as offline learning.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;Methodology: </strong>The study was conducted on students of &nbsp;two batches (2018 and 2019) of MBBS, JNMC, &nbsp;AMU. The batch of 2018 had its entire syllabus covered in the traditional offline pattern while the 2019 batch had to be taught via online mode taking into consideration the Covid-19 operational guidelines. The mean marks of students of two batches in their final examination were calculated and the results were compared. The feedback from the students was also recorded and analysed.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;Results: </strong>Students of 2018 batch who were taught offline performed significantly better in terms of mean marks obtained, 65.67±12.224 vs 58.57±11.806 &nbsp;(P&lt;0.001) &nbsp;as well as in terms of proportion of students obtaining 1<sup>st</sup> division, 75.33% vs 48% (P&lt;0.001).</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;Conclusion</strong><strong>: </strong>Our study findings reveal that offline learning is a more effective method of learning anatomy. However, online learning in present times is a necessity and not an option. So, innovative methods should be devised to improve teaching and learning of anatomy via online platform to effect a better performance outcomes from the students.</p> Midhat Muttaqui, Nema Usman, Akansha Singh, Mohd. Yasir Zubair Copyright (c) 2021 Midhat Muttaqui, Nema Usman, Akansha Singh, Mohd. Yasir Zubair https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.iabcr.org/index.php/iabcr/article/view/763 Fri, 31 Dec 2021 19:42:29 +0000 Effect of Body Fat Mass Index on Intraocular Pressure in Surrounding Population of Aligarh https://www.iabcr.org/index.php/iabcr/article/view/764 <p>Background: Increased intraocular pressure (IOP) may lead to ocular hypertension and Glaucoma. So, it is important to identify the factors that influence the level of IOP and prevent the increased IOP. Body fat mass index (BFMI) is one of such factors.<br>Up till now only BMI was available in our armamentarium which reflected obesity in general population. Now with newer techniques to calculate body fat percentage (BFP) and body fat mass index (BFMI), we get a more sophisticated picture of obesity. Methods: In this study, we want to see the relationship between intraocular pressure (IOP) and body fat mass index (BFMI). This study was conducted over a period of 2 years and evaluation the intraocular pressure (IOP) in men and women with respect to their body fat mass index (BFMI) was done. Results: This study shows a positive association between BFMI and IOP. In this study the mean IOP of right eye is 15.30 and mean IOP of left eye is 15.08. This study includes North-Indian subjects from, in and around Aligarh Uttar Pradesh, both males and females between the age group 29-69 years. Conclusion: In this study the intra-ocular pressure in both eyes has statistically significant positive correlation with body fat mass index (BFMI).</p> Fareha Husain, Mohd Aslam, Sangeeta Singhal, Abdul Waris Copyright (c) 2021 Fareha Husain, Mohd Aslam, Sangeeta Singhal, Abdul Waris https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.iabcr.org/index.php/iabcr/article/view/764 Fri, 31 Dec 2021 19:44:30 +0000 A Prospective Study on Drug Prescribing Pattern in Paediatric Patients Presenting with Fever https://www.iabcr.org/index.php/iabcr/article/view/765 <p><strong><em>&nbsp;</em></strong></p> <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong><em>It is seen that children form one of the largest groups of patients consulting general practitioners. It is reported that 18% of all GP consultations concern children less than 16 years of age every year. Children are constantly changing with respect to growth, psychosocial development and pharmacodynamic response. Children differ from adults in their response to drugs. It is needed to ensure the right drug prescribed and correct dosage is given, especially in the neonatal period.1,2 prompt communication of medication orders minimizes medication errors.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods: </em></strong><em>This study were included 250 IPD cases of Paediatrics wards with complain of fever. </em><em>This study was conducted in the Department of paediatrics. The duration of study was over a period of one year.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results: </em></strong><em>In this study we were included total 250 cases. Among all 36 cases found 1 month to 1 year,123 cases 1-5 year, 91 cases &gt; 5 year. All cases had fever. Among all 100% cases had prescription of antipyretic drug followed by antibiotic 98.8%, antispasmodic 22.4%, analgesic 14.8%, antiemetic14.4%, bronchodilators 13.6%, antiulcer agent 12%,vitamin 6%, cough syrup 4.8%, steroid 0.4%, nasal drop 0.4%, antiallergic 0.4%, purgative 0.4%.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion: </em></strong><em>The conclusion of this study that,</em><em> Irrational FDCs are being commonly prescribed and there is an urgent need to curb these harmful practices by stringent regulations and developing local guidelines for rational prescribing. </em></p> Harsh Wardhan, Shipra Kaushik, Bithika Ray Copyright (c) 2021 Harsh Wardhan, Shipra Kaushik, Bithika Ray https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.iabcr.org/index.php/iabcr/article/view/765 Fri, 31 Dec 2021 19:48:10 +0000 Quality of life among migraine patients: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey https://www.iabcr.org/index.php/iabcr/article/view/744 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Migraine is a chronic disorder which can negatively affects the quality of life of patients. So, we aimed to investigate the quality of life among migraine patients by conducting a questionnaire-based survey. &nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>This was a cross-sectional questionnaire-based study which was conducted in the Department of Pharmacology in collaboration with Department of Medicine, ESIC Medical College and Hospital, Faridabad after prior approval from the Institutional Ethics Committee. The study period was of 6 months (Feb 2019–July 2019).&nbsp; 100 patients suffering from migraine were enrolled, out of which 97 agreed to participate in the study. For assessment of health related quality of life (HRQol) we used the validated Migraine disability assessment (MIDAS) score and Headache Impact Test (HIT-6) score.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>A total of 100 migraine patients completed the questionnaire. Majority of them belonged to 31-40 years of age. Seventy-seven percent of the participants were females, and almost half of the participants (54%) reported having family history of migraine. Sixty-six percent of the participants reported being diagnosed with migraine for &gt;5 years, and 39% reported migraine attacks ranging from 1 to 4 times/month. The most common drug used for pain during migraine attack was paracetamol (acetaminophen) (78.4%) followed by stronger analgesics like ibuprofen, mefenamic acid, naproxen etc (49%); and tryptan derivatives (26%). The most used preventive medication was amitriptyline (49%) followed by propranolol (37%).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:&nbsp; </strong>Chronic migraine has a negative impact on quality of life, predominantly in younger age of patients, patients with repeated episodes, those who are not using preventing medication and those suffering from chronic disease.</p> Gopal Vishwas, Angelika Batta, Himanshu Chhabra Copyright (c) 2021 Gopal Vishwas, Angelika Batta, Himanshu Chhabra https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.iabcr.org/index.php/iabcr/article/view/744 Fri, 31 Dec 2021 19:51:16 +0000 Study of Detection of lasB gene and its Phenotypic Expression in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Obtained From Various Clinical Samples https://www.iabcr.org/index.php/iabcr/article/view/767 <p><strong>Background: </strong><em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa </em>is amongst the top listed pathogens responsible for health care related infection and the third most common co-infecting pathogen among COVID-19 patients. <em>P.aeruginosa</em> can affect immunocompromised patients. A major problem in infections caused by <em>P.aeruginosa</em> is high and multi-drug resistance to antibiotics commonly used to treat the patients. <em>P.aeruginosa</em> produces cellular and extracellular virulent factors.The elastase enzyme encoded by <em>lasB</em> gene is a major virulence factor secreted by <em>P.aeruginosa</em> that contributes in pathogenicity. In India, few researchers have focussed on virulence <em>lasB </em>gene and its allied virulence factor elastase B in <em>P.aeruginosa</em>. Therefore, this study was planned to study detection and phenotypic expression of <em>lasB</em> genes in <em>P. aeruginosa</em> clinical strains.</p> <p><strong>Materials and methods: </strong>This research study included 30 strains of <em>P. aeruginosa</em> obtained from various clinical samples. Screening of elastase B production was studied on nutrient agar media containing 1% elastin in 0.1 M tris buffer (pH 8.0), 0.04 M CaCl2, and 0.03 M tris buffer (pH.8.0) and genes<em>lasB</em>were detected by polymerase chain reactions and gel electrophoresis technique.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;Results:&nbsp; </strong>Polymerase chain reaction amplification results showed presence of <em>lasB </em>genes in 23 (76.67%) out of 30 <em>P.aeruginosa</em> strains and 18 (60%) of the isolates showed elastase B production.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Gene <em>lasB</em> in <em>P. aeruginosa is</em> one of the major virulent factors and contributes in causation of disease. It is concluded that <em>lasB</em> gene can be a notable virulent factor shown by presence of 76.67% and expressed phenotypically by 60% of <em>P. aeruginosa</em> strains. The specified key role of <em>lasB </em>virulent gene in the development of disease would help in determining idea of the prognosis of infections caused by <em>P.aeruginosa</em> and understanding successful treatment plan and designing ideal vaccine against the prevention of <em>P.aeruginosa</em> infection.</p> Jagannath D. Andhale, R.N Misra Copyright (c) 2021 Jagannath D. Andhale, R.N Misra https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.iabcr.org/index.php/iabcr/article/view/767 Fri, 31 Dec 2021 19:55:20 +0000 Efficacy of Saliva in Determination of ABO Blood Groups in Humans https://www.iabcr.org/index.php/iabcr/article/view/768 <p>Introduction: The saliva was first analyzed for the presence of anti-A and anti-B hemagglutinins in 1928. However, it was not been utilized as evidence in criminal investigations because of insufficient techniques available at that time. Hence, the present study was designed to evaluate feasibility of ABO group in medicolegal cases by determining the efficacy and accuracy of ABO blood group determination from saliva.</p> <p>Methodology: Total 100 random cases we were included in this study.The duration of study was over a period of one year.This study conducted in Department of Forensic medicine in Raipur Institute of Medical Sciences.</p> <p>Result: In this study we were included total 100 cases. This study also found that total 21 female &amp; 57 male are secretors and 11 male &amp; 11 female were non secretors.this result revealed that 78% were secretors and 22% were non secretors.</p> <p>Conclusion: This study may be useful in resolving the claims of parentage in estate or immigration or kidnapped children, disputed paternity and for identification of mass disasters.</p> Mohammad Wasi Khan, Shamim Raza Copyright (c) 2021 Mohammad Wasi Khan, Shamim Raza https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.iabcr.org/index.php/iabcr/article/view/768 Fri, 31 Dec 2021 19:57:22 +0000 The Effect of Pregnancy in the Haemoglobin Concentration of Pregnant Women https://www.iabcr.org/index.php/iabcr/article/view/769 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Anemia is a major health problem that affects 25% to 50% of the population of the world and approximately 50% of pregnant women. Hence; the present study was conducted with the aim of assessing the Effect of Pregnancy in the Haemoglobin Concentration of Pregnant Women.</p> <p><strong>Materials &amp; methods:</strong> A total of 200 pregnant subjects were enrolled. Data were collected using interview technique, reviewing the medical records, and using laboratory samples collection. Blood samples were obtained from the study participants before pregnancy, during the first trimester, during the second trimester, during the third trimester, during the onset of labor, after the third stage of labor, and at the 6-week postpartum period. Haemoglobin concentration was measured at different time intervals. A master chart was prepared and all the details were recorded and analysed.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Out of these patients, 61.5 percent of the patients were of primigravida while the remaining were of multigravida. Mean Hb levels before pregnancy, at First trimester, at Second trimester, at&nbsp; Third trimester, Onset of labor, After third stage of labor and After 6 weeks was 13.2, 11.5, 11.1, 10.3, 10.1, 10.2, 9.5 g/dL respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> From the above results, the authors conclude that Pregnancy significantly depletes the hemoglobin concentration of the women.</p> Manwinder Kaur, Gagan Preet Singh, Ankush Jairath Copyright (c) 2021 Manwinder Kaur, Gagan Preet Singh, Ankush Jairath https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.iabcr.org/index.php/iabcr/article/view/769 Fri, 31 Dec 2021 19:58:23 +0000 Burden of hypothyroidism amongst type 2 diabetics and hypertensives in Amroha: A cross sectional study https://www.iabcr.org/index.php/iabcr/article/view/770 <p class="p1"><strong>Background</strong>:The prevalence of hypothyroidism isreported in 4%–5% of population in the developed world, while in Indian population it isreported in around one in ten adults. <strong>Aims &amp; Objectives</strong>:This study was conducted to determine<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp; </span>the<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp; </span>prevalence<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp; </span>of<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp; </span>hypothyroidism<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp; </span>in<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp; </span>Indian<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp; </span>patients<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp; </span>with<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp; </span>T2DM<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp; </span>and<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp; </span>hypertension.<strong>Material<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp; </span>and methods</strong>:<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp; </span>In<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp; </span>this<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp; </span>cross-sectional<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp; </span>observational<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp; </span>study,<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp; </span>amongst adults<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp; </span>who<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp; </span>were<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp; </span>aged<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp; </span>18<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp; </span>years<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp; </span>and<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp; </span>above<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp; </span>and diagnosed<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp; </span>T2DM,<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp; </span>HTN,<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp; </span>and<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp; </span>T2DM<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp; </span>+<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp; </span>HTN<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp; </span>who<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp; </span>resided<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp; </span>in<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp; </span>the<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp; </span>field<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp; </span>practice<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp; </span>areas<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp; </span>of<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp; </span>the<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp; </span>Urban<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp; </span>Health<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp; </span>Training Centre of the Department of Community Medicine, Venkteshwara institute of medical sciences and research, Amroha, India. The results were summarized by descriptive statistics.Results: Out of 300 personsquestioned, 159 (53.0%) were females and 141 (47.0%) were males. It was found that the mean age of the overall population was 53.1±11.3 years,mean and standard deviation of thyroid function and glycemic indicators test, observed that thelevels of fT3, fT4, TSH, and glycemic indicators like FPG, PPG and HbA1c were identical. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Subclinical hypothyroid subjects should be regularly screened for HTN. Elderly patients had higher proportion of thyroid dysfunction</p> Pradeep Kumar Choudhary, Amit Kumar Jha Copyright (c) 2021 Pradeep Kumar Choudhary, Amit Kumar Jha https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.iabcr.org/index.php/iabcr/article/view/770 Fri, 31 Dec 2021 20:11:32 +0000 Study to know the Perinatal Transmission of SARS CoV-2 and Outcome of Newborns born to Covid-19 positive Mother in a L3 Centre in Barabanki District of Uttar Pradesh https://www.iabcr.org/index.php/iabcr/article/view/771 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Due to limited data on perinatal and vertical transmission, outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 infection in neonates, appropriate management and the neonate’s risk of developing COVID-19 during the perinatal period are unknown. Therefore, we aimed to know best practices regarding infection control in mother–newborn and identify potential risk factors associated with perinatal transmission.</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To describe clinical outcomes and risk factors for transmission in neonates born to mothers with perinatal SARS CoV-2 infection and practices associated with these outcomes.</p> <p><strong>Material and Methods:</strong> This retrospective cross sectional study was conducted in a L3 Covid Centre at Mayo Institute of Medical Sciences in Barabanki District of Uttar Pradesh. This study includes all newborns born to SARS-COV-2 positive in first and second wave of COVID-19 from March 2020 to June 2021. Infection control practices included in the data collection were disposition of the neonate at delivery either allowed to room in with mother or admitted to a dedicated isolation room, feeding method (direct breastfeeding or expressed breast milk or formula feed). Maternal nasopharyngeal swab specimens were tested for SARS-CoV-2 at the Central Microbiology Laboratory of Mayo Institute of Medical Sciences, Barabanki. A minimum of two nasopharyngeal swab specimen was obtained from each newborn and tested for SARS-CoV-2 using the RTPCR tests. First test was done within 48 hours of birth and second tests was done for each newborn in between day 5-7 day of birth.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>There were 53 deliveries in our institute to mothers who were tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. Among all positive mothers, 6 (11.3%) were asymptomatic and 47 (88.6%) were symptomatic. Most common symptom in positive mother is fever 37 (69.8%) followed by cough &amp; sore throat 26 (49.0%), GI symptoms and diarrhea 25 (47.1%), anosmia 19 (35.8%), headache 19 (35.8%) dyspnea &amp; shortness of breath 10 (18.8%). Maternal outcome was very good and all the mothers were discharged. Of the 53 neonates, born to covid positive mother 29 (54.7%) were male, 24 (45.2%) were female. There were 53 live births out of these 39 (73.5%) newborns were born by cesarean section and 14 (26.4%) were through normal vaginal delivery. 20 (37.7%) neonates were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in view of birth and neonatal complications and 10 (18.8%) received routine care in neonatal nursery. 23 newborns were handed directly to mother to be roomed in with proper protective equipments, mask and hand hygiene. A total of 48 (90.5%) newborns tested negative and only 5 (9.4%) tested positive. All neonates had a repeat RTPCR at 5–7 days of life and all were negative. All newborns after discharge from hospital were referred to outpatient clinic. 41 (77.3%) were lost to follow-up and 12 (22.6%) patients were adhered to follow up visits and tele-consultation.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> No clinical evidence of vertical transmission was identified in 53 newborns of mothers positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection if correct hygiene precautions are undertaken and that rooming in and breastfeeding are safe procedures when paired with effective parental education of infant protective strategies. Our study also provides important data on neonatal infection, clinical features, and outcomes in neonates born to SARS-CoV-2 positive mother.</p> Shubhi Agarwal , Mohammad Kashif, Shruti ., Mitali Jaiswal , Ramakrishna Boddupalli Copyright (c) 2021 Shubhi Agarwal , Mohammad Kashif, Shruti ., Mitali Jaiswal , Ramakrishna Boddupalli https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.iabcr.org/index.php/iabcr/article/view/771 Fri, 31 Dec 2021 20:01:15 +0000 Observational Prospective Clinical Study to estimate the effect of Lichtenstein’s Tension Free Inguinal Mesh Hernioplasty on Testicular perfusion. https://www.iabcr.org/index.php/iabcr/article/view/750 <p><strong><u>Introduction</u></strong>: Inguinal hernia is one of the most common surgical complaint for which a patient presents to the surgery department. Tension free mesh repair is the most commonly performed procedure worldwide for this condition. After hernioplasty the prosthetic mesh that is placed undergoes shrinkage and fibrosis which might alter the arterial blood flow to the testis because of being in close proximity to its vascular supply. This might impair testicular function after the surgery.</p> <p><strong><u>Aim</u></strong>: To assess testicular function after Mesh Hernioplasty for Inguinal hernia repair.</p> <p><strong><u>Materials and Methods</u></strong>: This was an observational study which included patients undergoing Lichtenstein mesh hernioplasty for inguinal hernia in Department of general surgery in FH medical college, Agra from January 2021 to June 2021. A total of 50 patients were included. Patients were diagnosed with inguinal hernia clinically and radiologically. A Colour Doppler ultrasound was done preoperatively and after 3 months postoperatively to assess the testicular function.</p> <p><strong><u>Results</u></strong>: A total of 50 patients were taken up for the study who met the inclusion criteria of which 26 patients had indirect inguinal hernia, 10 patients with direct inguinal hernia and 14 patients with indirect inguinal hernia with posterior wall defect. The age group included patients between 26-65 years of age. No significant difference was noted in the Doppler parameters of the patients preoperatively and postoperatively.</p> <p><strong><u>Conclusion</u></strong>: This study reflects that mesh hernioplasty for inguinal hernia repair is a relatively safe procedure with no significant effect on testicular function.</p> <p><strong><u>Keywords</u></strong>: Inguinal Hernia, Colour Doppler, Testicular Function</p> Puneet Agrawal, Nitish Jain, Waseem Akhtar, Abhishek Yadav Copyright (c) 2021 Puneet Agrawal, Nitish Jain, Waseem Akhtar, Abhishek Yadav https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.iabcr.org/index.php/iabcr/article/view/750 Fri, 31 Dec 2021 20:03:06 +0000 Morphological Changes in Peripheral Blood in COVID-19 Infection. https://www.iabcr.org/index.php/iabcr/article/view/772 <p><strong>Background and Objectives:</strong> Quantitative, as well as qualitative changes in lymphocytes associated with viral infections, are a known fact. However, coronavirus seems to have trilineage involvement in hematopoietic cells. The study was conducted to assess the association of morphology changes in peripheral blood smear with the severity of the disease and to develop a risk scoring system for early detection of severity in COVID-19 patients.</p> <p><strong>Material and methods:</strong> This was an prospective observational study conducted at a tertiary care referral center in North India. A total of 92 patients diagnosed between 1st to 31st March 2021 with COVID-19 infection by RT-PCR testing were included in the study. Multivariate binary logistic regression analysis was used to assess the independent predictors whereas the ROC curve was used to assess the diagnostic accuracy and a corresponding cut-off value of the risk scoring system.</p> <p><strong>Result:</strong> Out of the total, 40/92(43.4%) patients were having severe disease. White blood cells (WBC) and neutrophil morphology were identified as significant independent risk factors for severity and included in the risk scoring system. Risk scores ranged from 0-9, a higher score indicates higher severity. Total 12% of patients had scores 0 whereas 12% had scores in the range of 6-9. Area under ROC (AUROC) curve indicates that accuracy of the severity risk score was 80.8% with at-risk score ≥3 and ≥4, sensitivity/specificity were 80%/65.4% and 77.5%/73.1% respectively with a good agreement (75%, p&gt;0.05) between predicted and observed severity.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> White blood cells and Neutrophil morphology are significant independent risk factors for disease severity. Complete blood count along with peripheral blood smear examination for morphological changes and its scoring system is a quick, simple, and cheap method which can be useful not only to predict severity but also in daily monitoring daily in COVID-19 infection especially which is more useful in a setting of limited resources. However, studies with more patients are needed to validate the results.</p> Awale Rupali Bhalchandra, Rai Siddharth, Gunjiganvi Mallikarjun, Mishra Prabhakar, Alok Nath Copyright (c) 2021 Awale Rupali Bhalchandra, Rai Siddharth, Gunjiganvi Mallikarjun, Mishra Prabhakar, Alok Nath https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.iabcr.org/index.php/iabcr/article/view/772 Fri, 31 Dec 2021 20:05:06 +0000 Factors Affecting Dental Implant Failure in Patients Reporting to Periodontology Department Khyber College of Dentistry Peshawar Pakistan https://www.iabcr.org/index.php/iabcr/article/view/773 <p><strong>Objective</strong>: To determine factors affecting dental implant failure in patients reporting to Periodontology department Khyber College of Dentistry, Peshawar.</p> <p><strong>Material and methods</strong>: This retrospective study was conducted on 50 consecutive cases having failed implants. Inclusion criteria were cases having age from 30 to 70 years, both gender and Pakistani nationals. Patients suffering from endocrine problems, chronic infectious disorders, periodontitis, using immunosuppressive drugs and pregnant females were excluded from study. Data like age, implant length, diameter and bone quality were recorded. The data were entered and analyzed in SPSS version 22. Descriptive statistics like mean and SD was calculated for continuous data and frequency and percentages were calculated for categorical variables. Factors for implant’s failure were stratified by gender using Chi-square test. P≤0.05 was considered significant.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The males were 29(58%) and females were 21(42%). The mean age was 51.3±9.73 years. The most common site of failure was maxillary posterior (n=18, 36%) followed by mandibular posterior (n=13, 26%) then by maxillary anterior (n=12, 24%). Most failure was seen in implants having length less than 10mm (n=24, 48%) followed by &gt;11.5mm (n=17, 34%). The most failed implants were &lt;3.5mm diameter (n=22, 44%) followed by &gt;4.5mm (n=17, 34%). The common age in which implant failure was seen was above 50 years (n=23, 46%).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Most common factors for implant failure were posterior maxillary area, shorter length, thin diameter and increasing age.</p> Muhammad Jamil, Hussam ., Muhammad Ifham Khan Jadoon, Mahirah Iqbal, Wajeeha Urooj , Mashal Riaz Copyright (c) 2021 Muhammad Jamil, Hussam ., Muhammad Ifham Khan Jadoon, Mahirah Iqbal, Wajeeha Urooj , Mashal Riaz https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.iabcr.org/index.php/iabcr/article/view/773 Fri, 31 Dec 2021 20:06:38 +0000