International Archives of BioMedical and Clinical Research https://www.iabcr.org/index.php/iabcr <p style="text-align: justify;">International Archives of Biomedical and Clinical Research (IABCR) is an open access, international, peer-reviewed, quarterly multidisciplinary medical research journal that focuses on communicating high quality research articles, reviews, Short communications, case reports, Letter to Editor, Drug News and updates in the field of Medical, Dental and other allied health and BioMedical Sciences. The Journal publishes 4-four issues in a year.</p> <h3>Connecting Researchers Globally</h3> <p style="text-align: justify;">IABCR offer Researchers, Academicians a better option when it comes to Open Access Journal publishing. Our platform vies to become the standard for all open access publications, irrespective of subjects or branches and aims to bring together researchers from all over the world and under a single global organization to form a community that actively creates new data and shares it with everyone with the utmost ease and simplicity.</p> <h3>Ethical guidelines for journal publication</h3> <p style="text-align: justify;">The Editor-in-Chief/Editor of International Archives of BioMedical and Clinical Research (IABCR) is responsible for determining which of the research papers/articles submitted to the journal should be printed. The publication decision is based on the recommendation of the journal's reviewers. The Editor-in-Chief /Editor may be maneuvered by the policies of the journal's editorial board and constrained by such legal requirements as shall then be in force regarding libel, copyright infringement and plagiarism. The Editor-in-Chief/Editor may consult with other editors or reviewers in getting to this determination.</p> Ibn Sina Academy of Medieval Medicine & Sciences, registered in 2001 under Indian Trusts Act, 1882. Publication Manager: Dr. Tayyaba Farhan en-US International Archives of BioMedical and Clinical Research 2454-9886 Breakfast and Academic Performance among College and University Students: Review of the Available Literature https://www.iabcr.org/index.php/iabcr/article/view/565 <p><strong>Breakfast and Academic Performance among College and University Students: Review of the Available Literature</strong></p> <h2>&nbsp;</h2> <h2>ABSTRACT:</h2> <h2>&nbsp;</h2> <p>Breakfast is one of the three essential meals consumed in a day. The nutrition provided by the breakfast is considered as a building block in maintenance of the functional activity of the body and henceforth is linked to the quality of life of an individual. The nutrients in the breakfast are sources of energy supply and maintains alertness, concentration and cognition. Among the students, regular intake of breakfast is associated with increased level of subject comprehension, regular attendance and increase ability to solve complicated tasks. Breakfast skipping is associated with lack of energy, disturbances in cognitive functions, mood changes, problems to retain memory and low academic scores. With higher level of education, workload rises and the demand of nutrition increases. The college and university level students are required to include healthy diet plan and should start their day with healthy breakfast. The aim of this review article is to ascertain the importance of habitual breakfast intake and its linkage to the academic performance of the college and university students. Research articles were analysed by the help of three databases; Google Scholar, PUBMED and APA database from 2005 to 2020. There is relationship of breakfast intake and educational performance of the individuals. Those who are habitual breakfast consumers have better academic achievement as compared to those who skip breakfast.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <h2>KEYWORDS:</h2> <p>Breakfast, students, academic performance, college, university</p> quratulain javaid Copyright (c) 2020 quratulain javaid https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-06-29 2020-06-29 6 2 HA1 HA6 Metabolic Syndrome in Patients of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Hospital-Based Study https://www.iabcr.org/index.php/iabcr/article/view/590 <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong><em>The prevalence of OCD is around 2-3% in general population. Some research has found it to be 10%. OCD patients are usually affected by other mental disorders also. In OCD patients, the occurrence of major depressive disorder is about 67%.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods:</em></strong> <em>Total 328 OCD cases were enrolled on the basis of inclusion and exclusion criteria. This study was conducted in Department of Psychiatry.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results: </em></strong><em>In our study we were included total 328 cases of OCD. The sociodemographic study of the cases showed in this study. In this study, Males were 124 in number and females were 204. Married patients outnumber the unmarried with 56.1% married vs. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in OCD cases was 32.9%.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions</em></strong><em>: Mean score for measuring the severity of OCD found to be more in MS patients and it was significant when compared it with patients in which metabolic syndrome was absent (p=0.001).</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Jaya Sharma Jeetpal Singh Rana Copyright (c) 2020 Jaya Sharma, Jeetpal Singh Rana https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-06-29 2020-06-29 6 2 PS1 PS3 A Prospective Study on Migraine and its Psychiatric Co-Morbidity in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital https://www.iabcr.org/index.php/iabcr/article/view/597 <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong><em>The mechanisms underlying migraine appear to be increasingly complicated. The term complex disease is used to define the nature of the illness. The wide heterogeneity of migraine accounts for the observation that a number of migraine sufferers include patients living an almost normal life and patients complaining of serious disability.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods:</em></strong> <em>Total 120 OPD cases who have migraine were included in this study. The duration of study was over a period of one year. This study was conducted in Department of Psychiatry.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results: </em></strong><em>In this study we were included total 120 OPD cases, who had complain of migraine. We identified the result according to MIGSEV &amp; MIDAS grading.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions</em></strong><em>: This study concluded that prevalence of migraine is more common in females than males.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Arun Jentilal Khatri Copyright (c) 2020 Arun Khatri Jentilal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-06-29 2020-06-29 6 2 PS4 PS6 A Comparative Prospective Study Between Suprascapular Nerve Block and Intra Articular Steroid in Pain Management for Frozen Shoulder Patients https://www.iabcr.org/index.php/iabcr/article/view/598 <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong><em>The main cause of shoulder pain and dysfunction in middle aged and elderly populations.2 It most commonly affects women aged between 40 and 60 years. Frozen shoulder has been shown to have an incidence of 3% to 5% in the general population and up to 20% in those with diabetes. This disorder is one of the most common musculoskeletal problems in orthopaedics.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods:</em></strong> <em>Total 70 cases were included in this study. This study was conducted in Department of Anesthesia. The duration of study was over a period of one year.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results: </em></strong><em>This study revealed that pain intensity on 1<sup>st</sup>, 3<sup>rd</sup>, 6<sup>th</sup> week which were 50, 25, 20, 5 &amp; 50, 25, 20, 5 in both group. The p value &lt;0.05 score of pain was considered significant. We also observed p value of range of motion which was also considered significant. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions</em></strong><em>: This study conclude that both IASI and SSNB interventions are effective in the management of AC, and efficacy of both is more or less similar in relieving shoulder pain, functional disability, and improving ROM in the management of AC.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Sidharth Verma Jayeeta Verma Sanjog R Mekewar Manvi Verma Raghbirsingh P Gehdoo Surekha Patil Bhavika Verma Copyright (c) 2020 Sidharth Verma, Jayeeta Verma, Sanjog R Mekewar, Manvi Verma, Raghbirsingh P Gehdoo, Surekha Patil, Bhavika Verma https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-06-29 2020-06-29 6 2 AN1 AN3 A Prospective Analytical Study on Postoperative Analgesic Effect in Patients Undergoing Abdominal Hysterectomy https://www.iabcr.org/index.php/iabcr/article/view/593 <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong><em>Although disturbing emergence reactions are associated with its use, ketamine has several clinically useful properties, including analgesia and less cardiorespiratory depressant effects than other anaesthetic agents, in fact it causes some stimulation of the cardiovascular system<strong>.</strong></em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods:</em></strong> <em>This prospective study was undertaken in the department of Anaesthesiology. Two group were included in this study i.e. Group A &amp; Group B. Both groups had 18 cases. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Results: </em></strong><em>Demographic variables were compared between both groups A and B. Group A is A significant faster onset of sensory block was found in ketamine group in comparison to fentanyl group. (p-value&lt;0.001). While the time to achieve the highest level of sensory block was found to be almost similar in both the groups.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions</em></strong><em>: Addition of ketamine or fentanyl to spinal bupivacaine were equally effective in pain control after abdominal hysterectomy.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Priyaka Aman Yogesh Jharwal Copyright (c) 2020 Priyaka Aman, Yogesh Jharwal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-06-29 2020-06-29 6 2 AN4 AN6 A Hospital Based Prospective Study on Acute Scrotum: Evaluation, Diagnosis, Intervention and Management https://www.iabcr.org/index.php/iabcr/article/view/594 <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong><em>Generally, testis is partly covered by tunica vaginalis derived from procesus vaginalis in anterior part. If testis, epididymis and distal part of spermatic cord is covered by tunica–vaginalis, torsion of the testis may occur in this serosal space. The major differential diagnoses are acute epididymitis, strangulated hernia, hematocle, hydrocle, testis tumor and idiopathic scrotal edema</em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods:</em></strong> <em>This prospective study was carried out among 100 male patients between the age group of 14 to 70 years. Around 100 cases were included in our study.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results: </em></strong><em>We observed that swelling &amp; pain seen in every cases while fever in 48 cases, burning micturition in 30 cases, abdominal pain in 16 cases &amp; 12 cases of trauma. All the patients treated conservatively responded well with complete recovery.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions</em></strong><em>: Our study revealed that Conservative treatment in the form of rest, scrotal support, antibiotics and analgesics is effective in cases of epididymo orchitis and idiopathic scrotal edema.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Mohan Lal Vishnoi Manish . Copyright (c) 2020 Mohan Lal Vishnoi, Manish . https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-06-29 2020-06-29 6 2 GS1 GS3 Maternal and Fetal Outcome in First Stage versus Second Stage Caesarean Section https://www.iabcr.org/index.php/iabcr/article/view/589 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Caesarean Section (CS) is the most commonly performed abdominal operation in women all over the world. CS can be performed before labour or during the first and second stages of labour. Hence; the present study was undertaken for assessing maternal and fetal outcome in first stage versus second stage caesarean section.</p> <p><strong>Materials &amp; Methods:</strong> 100 caesarean sections were studied in the present study, out of which, 60 sections were done in first stage of labour (Group A) and the remaining 40 sections were performed in the second stage of labour (Group B). Assessment of signs for first stage Caesarean section, signs for second stage Caesarean section was done. Assessment of intra-operative complications was done.&nbsp; Neonatal outcome was assessed. Presence of any adverse effects to the mother and baby which developed during their hospital stay was also recorded. All the results were recorded in Microsoft excel sheet and were analysed by SPSS software. Chi-square test was used for assessment of level of significance.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Significantly higher incidence of complications was seen among subjects of group B in comparison to group A. Postpartum hemorrhage was found to be present in 5 subjects of group A and 29 subjects of group B. Blood transfusion requirement was seen in 7 patients of group A and 20 patients of group B. postoperative wound infection was seen in 2 patients of group A and 8 patients of group B.In the present study, neonatal complications were significantly higher in subjects of group B in comparison to group A. Respiratory distress was seen in 23 neonates of group A while it was seen in 29 neonates of group B. No mortality was seen in group A while 4 neonates died in group B.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Subjects in the second stage (delivered by caesarean section) are associated with a higher risk of complications. Therefore; it is suggested that second stage caesarean should preferably be performed by an experienced and skilled obstetrician.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Punita Kumari Smita Kumari Copyright (c) 2020 Punita Kumari, Smita Kumari https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-06-29 2020-06-29 6 2 OG1 OG3 Subtrochanteric Valgus Osteotomy of Non-United Fracture Neck Femur by Dynamic Hip Screw https://www.iabcr.org/index.php/iabcr/article/view/585 <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong><em>Non-union and avascular necrosis of the femoral head is the main complications of fractures of the femoral neck. &nbsp;Valgization osteotomy is a therapeutic option that is considered to be effective for treating consolidation failure of transtrochanteric fractures. Hence; the present study was undertaken for assessing efficacy of Subtrochanteric Valgus Osteotomy of Non-United Fracture Neck Femur by Dynamic Hip Screw.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods:</em></strong> <em>A total of 20 patients with non-united fracture of femur neck were enrolled. Complete demographic details of all the patients were obtained. All the patients underwent Subtrochanteric Valgus Osteotomy under the hands of skilled and experienced orthopaedic surgeons. Pre-operative assessment of all the patients was done (both clinical and radiographic). Post-operative follow-up was done and outcome was evaluated by using Harris hip screw and change in neck shaft angle. All the results were recorded in Microsoft excel sheet and were analysed by SPSS software.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results: </em></strong><em>Mean duration of surgery was found to be 69.2 minutes. Mean blood loss was found to be 380.5 ml. Mean time for fracture union was found to be 11.2 weeks. Mean preoperative neck shaft angle was 102.1° and it improved significantly after treatment reaching a postoperative value of 137.9°. Mean preoperative Harris hip score was 42.8 and it improved significantly after treatment reaching a postoperative value of 88.4.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions</em></strong><em>: </em><em>Subtrochanteric Valgus Osteotomy by Dynamic Hip Screw for non-United Fracture Neck Femur provides adequate results with excellent prognosis. However; further studies were recommended.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Makhan Lal Barun Golwara Subodh Sharma Anjit Kumar Copyright (c) 2020 Makhan Lal, Barun Golwara, Subodh Sharma, Anjit Kumar https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-06-29 2020-06-29 6 2 OP1 OP3 A Hospital Based Study on Functional and Radiological Outcome of Volar Barton’s Fracture treated with Volar T – Plate https://www.iabcr.org/index.php/iabcr/article/view/595 <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong><em>F</em><em>ractures may occur due to low energy or high energy injuries. High energy injuries are more frequent cause of volar Barton’s fracture.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods:</em></strong> <em>90 total number of cases were included in this study who attended the OPD. This study was conducted in Department of Orthopedics.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results: </em></strong><em>In our study we were included total 90 cases of 0-60 age group. Mode of injury we were seen Fall on outstretched hand in 63 cases and Road traffic accident in rest cases. This study revealed that subject &amp; functional result which were excellent in 18 &amp; 27, good in 48 &amp; 45 cases, fair in 15 &amp; 6 cases, poor in 9&amp; 12 cases respectively.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions</em></strong><em>: This study disclosed that maintaining anatomical reduction is key stone for satisfactory outcome. Best functional results were achieved till 6 months of treatment.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Manish . Mohan Lal Vishnoi Copyright (c) 2020 Manish ., Mohan Lal Vishnoi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-06-29 2020-06-29 6 2 OP4 OP6 A Retrospective Sonological Evaluation of Placental Thickness with Respect to the Gestational Age in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Rajsamand https://www.iabcr.org/index.php/iabcr/article/view/596 <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong><em>Placenta is a source of nutrition for the developing fetus. It can throw light on its health and growth status also. sonography provides the accurate determination of gestational age. It is the most useful information.&nbsp; In estimating GA, growing evidences on the prediction of placental thickness are directing the obstetricians to measure PT as a routine in pregnant woman.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods:</em></strong> <em>In our&nbsp; study, we includes 200 normal antenatal subjects of gestational age ranging from 11 weeks to 40.This study conducted in the Department of Radiology.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results: </em></strong><em>This result revealed that placental thickness increases with each week of gestation from 11.51mm at 11 weeks to 37.13mm at 40 weeks of gestational age as given in last.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions</em></strong><em>: It can be concluded that antenatal ultrasound examinations should include measurement of placental thickness, because it helps in quantifying intrauterine environmental adequacy and fetal well-being.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Rahul Mangal Lalit Bhandari Copyright (c) 2020 Rahul Mangal, Lalit Bhandari https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-06-29 2020-06-29 6 2 RD1 RD3 To Describe the Various Attachments in Dorsal Digital Expansion (DDE) of Thumb: Laboratory Based Cross Sectional Observational Study https://www.iabcr.org/index.php/iabcr/article/view/586 <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong><em>Due to the thickening &amp; inflammation of the tendons of Abductor pollicis Longus &amp; Extensor pollicis Brevis, a movement of thumb or compression of 1st dorsal compartment of wrist causes pain &amp; swelling. Thus, knowledge of such variations is important for surgeons while performing plastic reconstructive surgeries. The proposed study was conducted to determine contribution of tendons of Abductor Pollicis Longus and Extensor Pollicis Brevis in formation of Dorsal Digital Expansion of thumb by dissection of proposed study area. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods:</em></strong> <em>The present study was conducted in dissection hall, both upper limbs of minimum 66 formalin preserved cadavers of Indian individual available at Department of Anatomy have been considered for study. The tendons were traced to their insertion and anatomical variations in the EPB and various attachments on Dorsal Digital Expansion of thumb on both sides recorded. All parameters were tabulated and analyzed using chi-square test. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Results: </em></strong><em>The Abductor Pollicis Longus was attached to the DDE of right thumb in 69.69 % of cases and the 1<sup>st </sup>Palmer Interosseous was attached in 51.5 % of cases. Well defined medial margin of DDE of thumb receives contribution from 96.9 % cases from oblique head of adductor pollicis, in 7.57% cases from transverse head of adductor pollicis and lateral margin of DDE of thumb receives fibres of APB in 74.23% cases. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions</em></strong><em>: In our conclusion, multiplicity of the APL and EPB, concomitant with a variant insertion pattern, attachment of various muscular tendons to DDE of thumb is the highlight of this study. Our cases show that these additional tendons may prove to be biomechanically advantageous. Moreover, these tendons may be effectively used for reconstructive surgeries. </em></p> <p><strong><em>&nbsp;</em></strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Saroj Lata Meena Reena Pabri Dhiraj Saxena Copyright (c) 2020 Saroj Lata Meena, Reena Pabri, Dhiraj Saxena https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-06-29 2020-06-29 6 2 HA7 HA10 Study of Pulmonary Function Test Parameters in Patients of a Tertiary Care Hospital: An Observational, Prospective Study https://www.iabcr.org/index.php/iabcr/article/view/591 <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong><em>Pulmonary function test (PFT) is a valuable tool to evaluate respiratory system. </em><em>It </em><em>helps in assessing severity of airway obstruction and functional degradation through</em><em> different patterns of abnormalities</em><em> and helps to </em><em>establish a diagnosis.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods:</em></strong> <em>This was an observational, prospective study conducted for three months on thrice-weekly basis in the Department of Pharmacology using Spiro Excel software.</em><em> FVC, FEV1, FEV1/ FVC%, PEFR and FEF <sub>25-75 %</sub> were compared in context of gender and age with one-tail unpaired t-test. Interpretation of PFTs, i.e. Normal, Obstructive, Restrictive, and Mixed were compiled and categorized on basis of gender. Age group based smoking habit was analyzed. The parameters and interpretation of PFTs were compared between smokers and non-smokers. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Results: </em></strong><em>In this study 90 patients were enrolled; 71 were males and 19 were females. The majority of patients (40, 44.4%) were about 18-38 years. Mean and standard deviation of PFT parameters were significantly higher for males. The interpretation of PFT showed 41 normal and 49 abnormal results. On gender-based analysis, 41 (57.7%) males and 8 (42.1%) females showed abnormal PFT. On basis of smoking habit, maximum smokers (43.5%) were about 18-38 years of age. Mean values of PFT parameters were compared and were found to be significantly reduced in smokers.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions</em></strong><em>: </em><em>This study showed that smoking has deleterious effect on pulmonary functions</em><em>. Hence, cessation of smoking should be encouraged to prevent further decline. Spirometry can provide information on pulmonary function which may increase awareness among smokers, and can influence them to quit smoking.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Hitesh Mishra Monesh Likhitkar Adil Ali Shakur Lalit Mohan Harihar Dikshit Copyright (c) 2020 Hitesh Mishra, Monesh Likhitkar, Adil Ali Shakur, Lalit Mohan, Harihar Dikshit https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-06-29 2020-06-29 6 2 PH1 PH4 Comparison of safety, effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of Combination of Levocetirizine and Fexofenadine with Montelukast in Allergic Rhinitis and its effect on quality of life https://www.iabcr.org/index.php/iabcr/article/view/592 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Allergic Rhinitis (AR) manifest with rhinorrhea, nasal congestion, obstruction, and pruritus. The management of allergic rhinitis consists of: environmental control measures and allergen avoidance, pharmacological management, and immunotherapy. Combination of levocetirizine and fexofenadine with montelukast have shown a significant improvement in patients with allergic rhinitis, so we designed this study to assess the comparison of effectiveness and safety of montelukast-levocetirizine and montelukast-fexofenadine in allergic rhinitis.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>&nbsp;This open-label,&nbsp;randomized,&nbsp;prospective,&nbsp;and parallel&nbsp;group study &nbsp;was conducted&nbsp;at a teritary care hospital in a period of two months. All patient clinically diagnosed with allergic rhinitis in the age group of 18 to 60 years were included in the study. The patients were divided into two groups by random number table and patients in Group A received a combination of levocetrizine and monetluekast whereas patients n Group B received a combination of fexofenadine with monteluekast once daily for 20 days. The patients were called for two follow-ups first after 10 days of onset of therapy and second visit after 20 dyas of treatment and the patients were assessed clinically.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The baseline characteristic of patients in both groups were comparable at baseline. There was a statistically significant decrease in total nasal symptom scores and total ophthalmic symptom score in both groups at 10 day and 20 days, though there was no statistically significant difference in both groups. There was a statistically significant decrease in quality of life scores in both groups at 10 days and 20 days, though at 20 day patients on levocetirizine had better response. There was a statistically significant higher cost of therapy in Group B.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Both Levocetirizine and Fexofenadine in combination with Monteleukast showed significant improvement as compared to baseline in terms of TNSS and TOSS. Patients in Levocetirizine group had a comparatively better quality of life, lesser side effects and low cost of therapy.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Suchita . Dinesh Kumar Sharma Gurjot Kaur Arshdeep Singh Sajeev Bhagat Prithpal Singh Matreja Copyright (c) 2020 Suchita ., Dinesh Kumar Sharma, Gurjot Kaur, Arshdeep Singh, Sajeev Bhagat, Prithpal Singh Matreja https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-06-29 2020-06-29 6 2 PH5 PH8 Histopathological Diagnosis amongst Subjects of Liver Diseases Reporting to the Pathology Department: An Institutional Based Study https://www.iabcr.org/index.php/iabcr/article/view/587 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Chronic liver diseases are one of the greatest cause deaths around the world, representing around 1.03 million deaths each year. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the histopathological diagnosis of subjects with liver disease.</p> <p><strong>Materials and methods</strong>: The present study was conducted in a prospective fashion enrolling 120 subjects reporting to the Department of Pathology, <a href="http://www.hi-techmedicalrkl.org/index.php">SMS Medical College &amp; Hospital, </a>Jaipur, Rajasthan (India) with liver disorders. There were 60 cases of hepatitis either viral or non-viral and 60 cases of cirrhosis of mixed etiology. All the data thus obtained was arranged in a tabulated form and analyzed using SPSS software. Percentage and frequency distribution were used to describe the results.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The present study enrolled 120 subjects, out of these 80 were males and 40 were females. The mean age of the study population was 40.23+/- 7.89 years. Ductopenia was shown by single subject of liver cirrhosis. Blood stasis was observed by 3.3% liver cirrhosis and 1.7% hepatitis subjects. Focal type of necrosis was seen amongst 68.3% (n=41) liver cirrhosis subjects and 73.3% (n=44) hepatitis subjects. Inflammatory infiltrate was seen amongst 36.7% (n=22) liver cirrhosis subjects and 16.7% (n=10) chronic hepatitis subjects.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> In present study; portal inflammation was most common mesenchymal change in liver cirrhosis and hepatitis. Focal type of necrosis was seen in both the cases.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Kamlesh Yadav Mukesh Kumar Khinchi Copyright (c) 2020 Kamlesh Yadav, Mukesh Kumar Khinchi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-06-29 2020-06-29 6 2 PA1 PA3 A Prospective Study on Platelets Count and Serological Marker in Dengue Infection in a Tertiary Hospital https://www.iabcr.org/index.php/iabcr/article/view/599 <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong><em>Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne infection. As far as quantities of people tainted, it is by a long shot the most crushing of all the perceived arthropod-transmitted infection illnesses. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods:</em></strong> <em>This study was conducted in&nbsp; Department of Pathology</em><em>. </em><em>A total of 82 serum samples from clinically suspected dengue patients attending outdoors, causality services and indoor patients were included in this study.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results: </em></strong><em>In our study, 512 total samples were included in this study. 82 samples were positive, and 430 samples were negative out of 512 samples. In the present study, 54% were males and 46% were females. In this study showed relationship between Platelet count and other parameters.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions</em></strong><em>: Thrombocytopenia found in case of fever which is more constantly in dengue positive sooner than dengue negative cases. It correlates well when NS1 &amp; IgM are found simultaneously.</em></p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Manoj Saxena Copyright (c) 2020 Manoj Saxena https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-06-30 2020-06-30 6 2 PA4 PA6