Assessment of Salivary Glucose Levels as a Metabolic Control Marker in Patients with Type 2 diabetes
Background:Diabetes mellitus comprise of a group of metabolic diseases which is characterized by chronic hyperglycaemia consequential from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. This study aimed to determine any alterations in the salivary glucose levels and to assess for a correlation between salivary glucose levels and blood glucose levels in both diabetic and non-diabetic patients.
Methods: 100 diabetics and 100 non-diabetic aged matched healthy control were included into the study. Unstimulated saliva and blood samples were obtained from all subjects. Every sample was analysed for glucose straightaway or stored at –20°C in case of delay in analysis. Before evaluating, the saliva samples were centrifuged at 3500 rpm for 5 minutes, and resulting supernatant was assessed for presence of glucose. Data collected was analysed using statistical software. A p value of < 0.05 was taken as significant.
Results: Mean serum glucose (220.8 ± 66.64) and mean salivary glucose (8.94 ± 3.52) in the diabetics were higher than the mean serum glucose (91.63 ± 12.96) and mean salivary glucose (4.53± 2.56) in the non-diabetic group and the difference was highly significant (p< .001). A highly significant correlation existed between serum and salivary glucose levels in both diabetics and non-diabetics when assessed through Spearman’s Correlation coefficient (R = 0.70016 and the two-tailed value of P was 0 [highly significant]).
Conclusion: The salivary glucose levels of diabetics are significantly higher than the non-diabetics and the salivary glucose levels are correlated significantly with blood glucose levels. Thus, saliva could act as a potential non-invasive adjunct to monitor glycemic control in diabetic patients.
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