Prevalence of DQ2, DQ8 and DR4 Alleles in Iraqi Celiac Patients

  • Wasan Sami Hameed Assist. Prof. Immunology, Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine/University of Kufa
  • Raad Jasim Abdul-Mehdi Med. Tech., Ph.D Stud., Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine/University of Kufa.
  • Hashim Raheem Tarish Prof. Microbiology, Head of Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine/ University of Kufa.
  • Hashim Ali Abdulameer Alsherees Assist. Lecture, Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine/University of Kufa.
Keywords: Celiac disease, DQ2, DQ8, DR4.


Celiac disease(CD) is a chronic small intestinal immune-mediated enteropathy precipitated by exposure to dietary gluten in genetically predisposed individuals, many environmental triggering factors are suggested to participate in its pathogenesis, CD is strongly concomitant with specific HLA class II genes known as HLA-DQ2 and HLA-DQ8 which present in 90-95% of celiac patients and the remaining (5-10%) bears DR4-DQ8 haplotype. Also non-HLA genes my influence susceptibility to the disease but their influence has not been confirmed yet. So that this study aims to determine the distribution of DQ2, DQ8, DR4and non DQ2/DQ8 among Iraqi celiac patients. Sample of 80 Iraqi celiac patients (tTg-A,tTg-G and AGA positive)  has been chosen from all suspected patients who attending to Al-Suder- Medical city during the period of  April  2015 to  November 2015, blood samples were obtained from those patients and send for DNA extraction and HLA typing by RT-PCR. The results showed that 70% (56) patients were females and 30% (24) were males, also 37.5% from those patients were lies between 1-10 years old. HLA typing showed that 77.5% of those were had DQ2 genotyping, 7.5% were had D82 genotyping, 10% were had DR4-DQ8 genotyping and 5% were had non DQ2/DQ8 genotyping.


Download data is not yet available.


1. Trier, J.S. (1997). Celiac Sprue and Refractory Sprue. In Sleosenger and Fordrans Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease / 6th Edition. Vol-2.
2. Rostami-Nejad M, Ishaq S, Al Dulaimi D, Zali MR, and Rostami K.( 2015).The Role of Infectious Mediators and Gut Microbiome in the Pathogenesis of Celiac Disease. Arch Iran Med ;18(4): 244 – 249.
3. Houlston R.S , Ford D. (1996). Genetics of coeliac disease. QJM; 89: 737-743.
4. Sollid L M, Markussen G, Ek J, Gjerde H, Vartdal F, Thorsby E. (1989). Evidence for a primary association of celiac disease to a particular HLA-DQ alpha/beta heterodimer. The Journal of experimental medicine; 169: 345-350.
5. Kurppa K, Salminiemi J, Ukkola A, Saavalainen P, Löytynoja K , Laurila, K. et al.(2012). Utility of the new ESPGHAN criteria for the diagnosis of celiac disease in at-risk groups: A large family-based cohort study. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr.;54:387–391.
6. Lundin K E, Sollid L M, Qvigstad E, Markussen G, Gjertsen H A, Ek J and Thorsby E. (1990). T lymphocyte recognition of a celiac disease-associated cis- or trans-encoded HLADQ alpha/beta-heterodimer. Journal of immunology;145: 136-139.
7. Spurkland A, Sollid L M, Polanco I, Vartdal F, and Thorsby E. (1992). HLA-DR and DQ genotypes of celiac disease patients serologically typed to be non-DR3 or non-DR5/7. Human immunology; 35: 188-192.
8. Grecol L, Romino R and Coto L. (2002). The First Large Population Based Twin Study of Celiac Disease. Gut; 50:624-628.
9. Silano M, Agostoni C and Guandalini S .( 2010). Effect of the timing of gluten introduction on the development of celiac disease. World J Gastroenterol ;16(16): 1939-1942.
10. Helms S. (2005). Celiac disease and gluten-Associated disease. Alternative Medicine Review; 10(3):172-192.
11. Hell D A, and West J. (2006). Resent advances in celiac disease. Gut ;55:1037-1046.
12. Green P H, Cellier C. (2007). Celiac disease. N Engl. J. Med; 357(17):1731-1737.
13. Trynka G, Hunt K A, Bockett N A, Romanos J, Mistry V, Szperl A, Bakker S F, Bardella M T, Bhaw-Rosun L and Castillejo G. (2011). Dense genotyping identifies and localizes multiple common and rare variant association signals in celiac disease. Nature genetics; 43: 1193-1201.
14. AL-kenzawi A A H. (2006). Evaluation of immunological and pathological assays for diagnosis celiac disease in Iraqi patients. Msc. th. Baghdad U. p.45.
15. Al-Saadi H A, Abid A H. (2009). Celiac disease in karbala .J Karb Unv;7(2):51-61.
16. Kamil L M. Evaluation of coeliac disease serological markers. J. Fac. Med. Baghdad 2005;57(2):156-159.
17. Ivarsson A, Persson LA, and Nystrom L. Epidemic of coeliac disease in Swedish children. Acta paediat. 2000;89:165-171.
18. Marine M, Farre C, Alsina M, and Vilar P. (2011). The prevalence of celiac disease is significantly higher in children compared with adults. Aliment Pharmacol Ther;33 (4):477-484.
19. Rubio-Tapia A, Hill I D, Kelly C P, Calderwood A H,and Murray J A. ACG clinical guidelines: Diagnosis and management of celiac disease. AM.J. Gastroenterol 2003 ;108:656–676.
20. Green P, Stavropoulos S and Panagi S (2001). Characteristics of adult celiac disease in the USA: result of a national survey. Am.J. Gastroentero; 96:126-131.
21. Megiorni F, Mora B, Bonamico M, Barbato M, Montuori M, et al. (2008). HLA-DQ and susceptibility to celiac disease: evidence for gender differences and parent-of-origin effects. Am J Gastroenterol;103:997–1000.
22. Donat E, Planelles D, Capilla-Villanueva A et al. (2009). Allelic distribution and the effect of haplotype combination for HLA type II loci in the celiac disease population of the Valencian community (Spain). Tissue Antigens; 73(3):255-261.
23. Karell K, Louka AS, Moodie SJ. et al. (2003). HLA types in celiac disease patients not carrying the DQA1*05-DQB1*02 (DQ2) heterodimer: results from the European Genetics Cluster on Celiac Disease. Hum Immunol; 64(4):469-477.
24. Çakır M, Baran M, Uçar F, Akbulut UE, Kaklıkkaya N,and Ersöz Ş.(2014). Accuracy of HLA-DQ genotyping and IgA anti-tissue transglutaminase and a "scoring system" for the diagnosis of celiac disease in Turkish children. Turk J Pediatr ; 56: 347-353.
25. Abdullah H N, Amina N A. Association of celiac disease with HLA-DRB1and HLA-DQB1 alleles in a sample of Iraqi patients. Iraq J. Biotech. 2012;11(2): 529-536.
26. Tüysüz B, Dursun A, Kutlu T, Sökücü S, Cine N, Süoğlu O, Erkan T, Erginel-Unaltuna N, and Tümay G.(2001). HLA-DQ alleles in patients with celiac disease in Turkey. Tissue Antigens;57: 540-542.
27. Mostafa H A, Mohamed O G, Fathia H M and Ahmed M M.(2015). The signature of HLA class ii genes in Sudanese patients with celiac disease. International Journal of Current Research; 7(5):16200-16203.
How to Cite
Hameed WS, Abdul-Mehdi RJ, Tarish HR, Alsherees HAA. Prevalence of DQ2, DQ8 and DR4 Alleles in Iraqi Celiac Patients. Int Arch BioMed Clin Res [Internet]. 2016Sep.28 [cited 2020Sep.18];2(3):118-21. Available from: